What is Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

What is Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?

Adenosine triphosphate, also known as ATP, is a molecule that carries energy in cells. It can interconvert with ADP to achieve energy storage and release, thus ensuring the energy supply for various life activities of cells. ATP is present in all biological cells and can provide energy support for many physiological processes in living cells, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, condensate dissolution and chemical synthesis, and is the main energy currency of cells. In addition to providing energy to cells, it is used in signal transduction pathways for cellular communication, and is incorporated into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during DNA synthesis, a precursor to DNA and RNA, and used as a coenzyme.

The benefits of ATP.

  1. Provide energy for cells

ATP is the main energy carrier used for all cellular activities. Almost all the energy needed by the human body is provided by ATP. For example, the beating of the heart, the movement of muscles and various functions of various cells are all derived from the energy generated by ATP. Without ATP, various organs and tissues of the human body will strike one after another. , there will be heart failure, muscle soreness, and easy fatigue.

When ATP synthesis is insufficient, the human body will feel weak, and there will be cardiac dysfunction, muscle soreness, and limb stiffness. If ATP synthesis is inadequate for a long time, the tissues and organs of the body will partially or completely lose their functions. The longer the duration of insufficient ATP synthesis, the greater the impact on various organs of the body. For humans, the most affected tissues and organs are heart and skeletal muscle. Therefore, ensuring the timely synthesis of ATP in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells is an important measure to maintain cardiac and muscle function.

2. Involved in intracellular signaling

ATP is a signaling molecule used in cellular communication and is involved in signaling by serving as a substrate for kinases. Kinases are enzymes that phosphorylate molecules and are important for signal transduction. Signal transduction is the way in which physical or chemical signals are transmitted from receptors outside the cell to the inside of the cell. Once the signal enters the cell, the cell responds appropriately. Cells may be given signals to grow, metabolize, differentiate into specific types and even die. ATP also acts as a universal trigger for the release of intracellular messengers. These messengers include hormones, various enzymes, lipid mediators, neurotransmitters, nitric oxide, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species.

3. Involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA

ATP is one of four nucleotide triphosphate monomers necessary in the synthesis of RNA, a process facilitated by RNA polymerase. DNA synthesis uses a similar mechanism, except that ATP is first converted to the deoxyribonucleotide dATP by removing oxygen atoms from sugars, ATP is also consumed for DNA replication and DNA transcription.

4. Help muscles contract

Muscle contraction is an essential function of daily life, and ATP is essential for muscle contraction, and it plays three main roles: The first is to generate forces against adjacent actin filaments through the circulation of myosin cross-bridges. The second is the use of active transport to pump calcium ions from the sarcoplasm across the sarcoplasmic reticulum against their concentration gradient. The third function is the active transport of sodium and potassium ions across the sarcolemma to release calcium ions when input is received.

5. Active transport

ATP plays a key role in the transport of macromolecules such as proteins and lipids into and out of cells. The hydrolysis of ATP provides the energy needed for active transport mechanisms to carry these molecules across the concentration gradient. The transport of molecules into the cell is called endocytosis, while the transport of molecules out of the cell is called exocytosis.

6. Cell signaling

ATP has vital functions in both intracellular and extracellular signaling. It is readily recognized by purinergic receptors in mammalian tissues. In the central nervous system, adenosine regulates neural development, immune system control, and neuronal/glial signaling.

ATP is also involved in signal transduction – its phosphate group is depleted by kinases in a phosphate transfer reaction, thereby activating a cascade of protein kinase reactions.

7. Structural maintenance

ATP plays a very important role in protecting cell structure by helping the assembly of cytoskeletal elements. It also provides energy for the flagella and chromosomes to maintain their proper function.

How to get ATP?

Beyond simply consuming calories, there are certain micronutrients that can boost your ATP levels by optimizing your body’s enzymatic processes and nutrient transport.

1. Most B vitamins help promote the Kreb cycle in the mitochondria, especially vitamins B1, B2, and B3. Many common slices of meat, algae, and sea vegetables contain these important B vitamins.

2. Optimal magnesium levels are associated with well-functioning mitochondria, a mineral that aids in nutrient transport and helps our bodies produce ATP. Many nuts and seeds, such as pumpkin seeds and almonds, contain magnesium, and leafy greens such as spinach and beets are great sources of magnesium.

3. Antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E can also indirectly increase ATP production.

4.You can also supplement ATP directly by taking supplements, Xi’an Lyphar Biotech Co. Ltd. can supply 99% ATP powder with competitive price, if you have any interests, just feel free to contact us.

When should you take ATP?

There are currently no definitive studies on the optimal timing and amount of ATP supplementation. Available research shows that 400 mg of ATP is most effective when taken 30 minutes before exercise. On non-training days, it is best to take on an empty stomach 30 minutes before your first meal.